supp-vis.mkii / last modification: 2020-01-30 14:15
%D \module
%D   [       file=supp-vis,
%D        version=1996.10.21,
%D          title=\CONTEXT\ Support Macros,
%D       subtitle=Visualization,
%D         author=Hans Hagen,
%D           date=\currentdate,
%D      copyright={PRAGMA ADE \& \CONTEXT\ Development Team}]
%C
%C This module is part of the \CONTEXT\ macro||package and is
%C therefore copyrighted by \PRAGMA. See mreadme.pdf for
%C details.

% no longer generic, who cares ...

%D \gdef\ShowBufferedExample% private typeseting macro
%D   {\startlinecorrection
%D    \bgroup
%D    \setuptyping[margin=0pt,option=color]
%D    \showmakeup
%D    \centeredvcuetrue
%D    \dontinterfere
%D    \baselinerulefalse
%D    \normalvbox
%D      {\normalhbox to \hsize
%D         {$\hsize=.5\hsize
%D          \advance\hsize by -.5em
%D          \normalvcenter{\vbox{\getbuffer}}\normalhss
%D          \normalvcenter{\vbox{\dontshowcomposition\typebuffer}}$}}
%D    \egroup
%D    \stoplinecorrection}
%D
%D \gdef\ShowBufferedExampleBox% private typeseting macro
%D   {\startlinecorrection
%D    \bgroup
%D    \setuptyping[margin=0pt,option=color]
%D    \showmakeup
%D    \centeredvcuetrue
%D    \dontinterfere
%D    \baselinerulefalse
%D    \normalvbox
%D      {\normalhbox to \hsize
%D         {$\hsize=.5\hsize
%D          \advance\hsize by -.5em
%D          \normalvcenter{\baselineruletrue\vbox{\getbuffer}}\normalhss
%D          \normalvcenter{\vbox{\dontshowcomposition\typebuffer}}$}}
%D    \egroup
%D    \stoplinecorrection}

%D Although an integral part of \CONTEXT, this module is one
%D of the support modules. Its stand alone character permits
%D use in \PLAIN\ \TEX\ or \TEX\ based macropackages.
%D \ifCONTEXT \else If in some examples the verbatim listings
%D don't show up nice, this is due to processing by a system
%D that does not support buffering. In \CONTEXT\ we show the
%D commands in the margin, use bit more advanced way of
%D numbering, and typeset the source in \TEX nicolored
%D verbatim. Sorry for this inconvenience.\fi
%D
%D Depending on my personal needs and those of whoever uses it,
%D the macros will be improved in terms of visualization,
%D efficiency and compatibility. These rather low level
%D visualization macros are supplemented by ones that can
%D visualize baselines, the page layout and whatever deserves
%D attention. Most of those macros can be found in \type
%D {core-vis} and other core modules. Their integration in
%D \CONTEXT\ prohibits generic applications.

\ifx \undefined \writestatus \input supp-mis.tex \fi

%D One of the strong points of \TEX\ is abstraction of textual
%D input. When macros are defined well and do what we
%D want them to do, we will seldom need the tools present in
%D What You See Is What You Get systems. For instance, when
%D entering text we don't need rulers, because no manual
%D shifting and/or alignment of text is needed. On the other
%D hand, when we are designing macros or specifying layout
%D elements, some insight in \TEX's advanced spacing, kerning,
%D filling, boxing and punishment abilities will be handy.
%D That's why we've implemented a mechanism that shows some of
%D the inner secrets of \TEX.

\writestatus{loading}{ConTeXt Support Macros / Visualization}

%D In this module we are going to redefine some \TEX\
%D primitives and \PLAIN\ macro's. Their original meaning is
%D saved in macros with corresponding names, preceded by
%D \type{normal}. These original macros are (1)~used to
%D temporary restore the old values when needed and
%D (2)~used to prevent recursive calls in the macros that
%D replace them.

\unprotect

\let\visualvrule\vrule
\let\visualhrule\hrule

%D \macros
%D   {dontinterfere}
%D
%D Indentation, left and/or right skips, redefinition of
%D \type{\par} and assignments to \type{\everypar} can lead to
%D  unwanted results. We can therefore turn all those things
%D off with \type{\dontinterfere}.

\def\dontinterfere
  {\everypar \emptytoks
   \let\par  \endgraf
   \parindent\zeropoint
   \parskip  \zeropoint
   \leftskip \zeropoint
   \rightskip\zeropoint
   \relax}

%D \macros
%D   {dontcomplain}
%D
%D In this module we do a lot of box manipulations. Because we
%D don't want to be confronted with to many over- and underfull
%D messages we introduce \type{\dontcomplain}.

\def\dontcomplain
  {\hbadness\!!tenthousand \vbadness\hbadness
   \hfuzz   \maxdimen      \vfuzz   \hfuzz}

% This obsolete dutch name is sometimes uses in manual styles; when
% cleaning up the codebase I decided to move this definition here.

\let\mindermeldingen\dontcomplain

%D \macros
%D   {normaloffinterlineskip}
%D
%D The next hack is needed because in \CONTEXT\ we redefine
%D \type{\offinterlineskip}.

\ifx\undefined\normaloffinterlineskip
  \let\normaloffinterlineskip\offinterlineskip
\fi

%D \macros
%D   {normalhbox,
%D    normalvbox,normalvtop}
%D
%D There are three types of boxes, one horizontal and two
%D vertical in nature. As we will see later on, all three types
%D are to be handled according to their orientation and
%D baseline behavior. Especially \type{\vtop}'s need our
%D special attention.

% already saved

%D \macros
%D   {normalhskip,
%D    normalvskip}
%D
%D Next come the flexible skips, which come in two flavors
%D too. Like boxes these are handled with \TEX\ primitives.

% already saved

%D \macros
%D   {normalpenalty,
%D    normalkern}
%D
%D Both penalties and kerns are taken care of by mode sensitive
%D primitives. This means that when making them visible, we
%D have to take the current mode into account.

% already saved

%D \macros
%D   {normalhglue,
%D    normalvglue}
%D
%D Glues on the other hand are macro's defined in \PLAIN\ \TEX.
%D As we will see, their definitions make the implementation of
%D their visible counterparts a bit more \TeX{}nical.

\let\normalhglue = \hglue
\let\normalvglue = \vglue

%D \macros
%D   {normalmkern,
%D    normalmskip}
%D
%D Math mode has its own spacing primitives, preceded by
%D \type{m}. Due to the relation with the current font and the
%D way math is typeset, their unit \type{mu} is not compatible
%D with other dimensions. As a result, the visual appearance
%D of these primitives is kept primitive too.

% already saved

%D \macros
%D   {hfilneg,
%D    vfilneg}
%D
%D Fills can be made visible quite easy. We only need some
%D additional negation macros. Because \PLAIN\ \TEX\ only
%D offers \type{\hfilneg} and \type{\vfilneg}, we define our
%D own alternative double \type{ll}'ed ones.

\def\hfilneg  {\normalhskip\zeropoint \!!plus-1fil\relax}
\def\vfilneg  {\normalvskip\zeropoint \!!plus-1fil\relax}
\def\hfillneg {\normalhskip\zeropoint \!!plus-1fill\relax}
\def\vfillneg {\normalvskip\zeropoint \!!plus-1fill\relax}
\def\hfilllneg{\normalhskip\zeropoint \!!plus-1filll\relax}
\def\vfilllneg{\normalvskip\zeropoint \!!plus-1filll\relax}

%D \macros
%D   {normalhss,normalhfil,normalhfill,
%D    normalvss,normalvfil,normalvfill}
%D
%D The positive stretch primitives are used independant and in
%D combination with \type{\leaders}.

% already saved

%D \macros
%D   {normalhfilneg,normalhfillneg,
%D    normalvfilneg,normalvfillneg}
%D
%D Keep in mind that both \type{\hfillneg} and \type{\vfillneg}
%D are not part of \PLAIN\ \TEX\ and therefore not documented
%D in standard \TEX\ documentation. They can nevertheless be
%D used at will.

\let\normalhfillneg = \hfillneg
\let\normalvfillneg = \vfillneg

%D Visualization is not always wanted. Instead of turning this
%D option off in those (unpredictable) situations, we just
%D redefine a few \PLAIN\ macros.

\ifx\tlap\undefined

  \def\rlap#1{\normalhbox to \zeropoint{#1\normalhss}}
  \def\llap#1{\normalhbox to \zeropoint{\normalhss#1}}
  \def\blap#1{\normalvbox to \zeropoint{#1\normalvss}}
  \def\tlap#1{\normalvbox to \zeropoint{\normalvss#1}}

\fi

\ifx\contextversion\undefined \def~{\normalpenalty\!!tenthousand\ } \fi

%D \macros
%D   {makeruledbox}
%D
%D Ruled boxes can be typeset is many ways. Here we present
%D just one alternative. This implementation may be a little
%D complicated, but it supports all three kind of boxes. The
%D next command expects a \BOX\ specification, like:
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \makeruledbox0
%D \stoptyping

%D \macros
%D   {baselinerule,baselinefill}
%D
%D We can make the baseline of a box visible, both dashed and
%D as a rule. The line is drawn on top of the baseline. All
%D we have to say is:
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \baselineruletrue
%D \baselinefilltrue
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D At the cost of some overhead these alternatives are
%D implemented using \type{\if}'s:

\newif\ifbaselinerule  \baselineruletrue
\newif\ifbaselinefill  \baselinefillfalse

%D \macros
%D   {iftoprule,ifbottomrule,ifleftrule,ifrightrule}
%D
%D Rules can be turned on and off, but by default we have:
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \topruletrue
%D \bottomruletrue
%D \leftruletrue
%D \rightruletrue
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D As we see below:

\newif\iftoprule     \topruletrue
\newif\ifbottomrule  \bottomruletrue
\newif\ifleftrule    \leftruletrue
\newif\ifrightrule   \rightruletrue

%D \macros
%D   {boxrulewidth}
%D
%D The width in the surrounding rules can be specified by
%D assigning an apropriate value to the dimension used. This
%D module defaults the width to:
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \boxrulewidth=.2pt
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D Although we are already low on \DIMENSIONS\ it's best to
%D spend one here, mainly because it enables easy manipulation,
%D like multiplication by a given factor.

\newdimen\boxrulewidth \boxrulewidth=.2pt

%D The core macro \type{\makeruledbox} looks a bit hefty. The
%D manipulation at the end is needed because we want to
%D preserve both the mode and the baseline. This means that
%D \type{\vtop}'s and \type{\vbox}'es behave the way we expect
%D them to do.
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \hbox
%D   {\ruledhbox to 5em{\strut test\normalhss}\hskip1em
%D    \ruledvbox{\hsize 5em\strut test \par test\strut}\hskip1em
%D    \ruledvtop{\hsize 5em\strut test \par test\strut}}
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D The \type{\cleaders} part of the macro is responsible for
%D the visual baseline. The \type{\normalhfill} belongs to this
%D primitive too. By storing and restoring the height and depth
%D of box \type{#1}, we preserve the mode.

\let\dowithruledbox\relax

\let\ruledheight\!!zeropoint
\let\ruleddepth \!!zeropoint
\let\ruledwidth \!!zeropoint

\def\makeruledbox#1%
  {\edef\ruledheight{\the\ht#1}%
   \edef\ruleddepth {\the\dp#1}%
   \edef\ruledwidth {\the\wd#1}%
   \setbox\scratchbox\normalvbox
     {\dontcomplain
      \normaloffinterlineskip
      \visualhrule
        \!!height\boxrulewidth
        \iftoprule\else\!!width\zeropoint\fi
      \normalvskip-\boxrulewidth
      \normalhbox to \ruledwidth
        {\visualvrule
           \!!height\ruledheight
           \!!depth\ruleddepth
           \!!width\ifleftrule\else0\fi\boxrulewidth
         \ifdim\ruledheight>\zeropoint \else \baselinerulefalse \fi
         \ifdim\ruleddepth>\zeropoint \else \baselinerulefalse \fi
         \ifbaselinerule
           \ifdim\ruledwidth<20\boxrulewidth
             \baselinefilltrue
           \fi
           \cleaders
             \ifbaselinefill
               \visualhrule
                 \!!height\boxrulewidth
             \else
               \normalhbox
                 {\normalhskip2.5\boxrulewidth
                  \visualvrule
                    \!!height\boxrulewidth
                    \!!width5\boxrulewidth
                  \normalhskip2.5\boxrulewidth}%
             \fi
         \fi
         \normalhfill
         \visualvrule
           \!!width\ifrightrule\else0\fi\boxrulewidth}%
       \normalvskip-\boxrulewidth
       \visualhrule
         \!!height\boxrulewidth
         \ifbottomrule\else\!!width\zeropoint\fi}%
   \wd#1\zeropoint
   \setbox#1=\ifhbox#1\normalhbox\else\normalvbox\fi
     {\normalhbox
        {\box#1%
         \lower\ruleddepth\normalhbox{\dowithruledbox{\box\scratchbox}}}}%
   \ht#1=\ruledheight
   \wd#1=\ruledwidth
   \dp#1=\ruleddepth}

%D Just in case one didn't notice: the rules are in fact layed
%D over the box. This way the contents of a box cannot
%D visually interfere with the rules around (upon) it. A more
%D advanced version of ruled boxes can be found in one of the
%D core modules of \CONTEXT. There we take offsets, color,
%D rounded corners, backgrounds and alignment into account too.

%D \macros
%D   {ruledhbox,
%D    ruledvbox,ruledvtop,
%D    ruledvcenter}
%D
%D These macro's can be used instead of \type{\hbox},
%D \type{\vbox}, \type{\vtop} and, when in math mode,
%D \type{\vcenter}. They just do what their names state. Using
%D an auxiliary macro would save us a few words of memory, but
%D it would make their appearance even more obscure.
%D
%D \startbuffer
%D \hbox
%D   {\strut
%D    one
%D    two
%D    \hbox{three}
%D    four
%D    five}
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExampleBox

\unexpanded\def\ruledhbox
  {\normalhbox\bgroup
   \dowithnextbox{\makeruledbox\nextbox\box\nextbox\egroup}%
   \normalhbox}

%D \startbuffer
%D \vbox
%D   {\strut
%D    first line  \par
%D    second line \par
%D    third line  \par
%D    fourth line \par
%D    fifth line
%D    \strut }
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExampleBox

\unexpanded\def\ruledvbox
  {\normalvbox\bgroup
   \dowithnextbox{\makeruledbox\nextbox\box\nextbox\egroup}%
   \normalvbox}

%D \startbuffer
%D \vtop
%D   {\strut
%D    first line  \par
%D    second line \par
%D    third line  \par
%D    fourth line \par
%D    fifth line
%D    \strut }
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExampleBox

\unexpanded\def\ruledvtop
  {\normalvtop\bgroup
   \dowithnextbox{\makeruledbox\nextbox\box\nextbox\egroup}%
   \normalvtop}

%D \startbuffer
%D \hbox
%D   {$\vcenter{\hsize.2\hsize
%D       alfa \par beta}$
%D    $\vcenter to 3cm{\hsize.2\hsize
%D       alfa \par beta \par gamma}$
%D    $\vcenter{\hsize.2\hsize
%D       alfa \par beta}$}
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExampleBox

\unexpanded\def\ruledvcenter
  {\normalvbox\bgroup
   \dontinterfere
   \dowithnextbox
     {\scratchdimen.5\ht\nextbox
      \advance\scratchdimen .5\dp\nextbox
      \ht\nextbox\scratchdimen
      \dp\nextbox\scratchdimen
      \ruledhbox{\box\nextbox}%
      \egroup}%
   \normalvbox}

%D \macros
%D   {ruledbox,
%D    setruledbox}
%D
%D Of the next two macros the first can be used to precede a
%D box of ones own choice. One can for instance prefix boxes
%D with \type{\ruledbox} and afterwards --- when the macro
%D satisfy the needs --- let it to \type{\relax}.
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \ruledbox\hbox{What rules do you mean?}
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D The macro \type{\setruledbox} can be used to directly
%D rule a box.
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \setruledbox12=\hbox{Who's talking about rules here?}
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D At the cost of some extra macros we can implement a
%D variant that does not need the~\type{=}, but we stick to:

\unexpanded\def\ruledbox
  {\dowithnextbox{\makeruledbox\nextbox\box\nextbox}}

\def\setruledbox#1=%
  {\dowithnextbox{\makeruledbox\nextbox\setbox#1\nextbox}}

%D \macros
%D   {investigateskip,
%D    investigatecount,
%D    investigatemuskip}
%D
%D Before we meet the visualizing macro's, we first implement
%D ourselves some handy utility ones. Just for the sake of
%D efficiency and readability, we introduce some status
%D variables, that tell us a bit more about the registers we
%D use:
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \ifflexible
%D \ifzero
%D \ifnegative
%D \ifpositive
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D These status variables are set when we call for one of the
%D investigation macros, e.g.
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \investigateskip\scratchskip
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D We use some dirty trick to check stretchability of \SKIPS.
%D Users of these macros are invited to study their exact
%D behavior first. The positive and negative states both
%D include zero and are in fact non-negative ($\geq0$) and
%D non-positive ($\leq0$) .

\newif\ifflexible
\newif\ifzero
\newif\ifnegative
\newif\ifpositive

\def\investigateskip#1%
  {\relax
   \scratchdimen#1\relax
   \edef\!!stringa{\the\scratchdimen}%
   \edef\!!stringb{\the#1}%
   \ifx\!!stringa\!!stringb \flexiblefalse \else \flexibletrue \fi
   \ifdim#1=\zeropoint\relax
     \zerotrue      \else
     \zerofalse     \fi
   \ifdim#1<\zeropoint\relax
     \positivefalse \else
     \positivetrue  \fi
   \ifdim#1>\zeropoint\relax
     \negativefalse \else
     \negativetrue  \fi}

% etex
%
% \def\investigateskip#1%
%   {\relax
%    \ifdim\scratchskip=\zeropoint
%      \ifdim\gluestretch\scratchskip=\zeropoint
%        \ifdim\glueshrink\scratchskip=\zeropoint
%          \flexiblefalse
%        \else
%          \flexibletrue
%        \fi
%      \else
%        \flexibletrue
%      \fi
%    \else
%      \flexibletrue
%    \fi
%    \ifdim#1=\zeropoint\relax
%      \zerotrue      \else
%      \zerofalse     \fi
%    \ifdim#1<\zeropoint\relax
%      \positivefalse \else
%      \positivetrue  \fi
%    \ifdim#1>\zeropoint\relax
%      \negativefalse \else
%      \negativetrue  \fi}

\def\investigatecount#1%
  {\relax
   \flexiblefalse
   \ifnum#1=\zerocount
     \zerotrue      \else
     \zerofalse     \fi
   \ifnum#1<\zerocount
     \positivefalse \else
     \positivetrue  \fi
   \ifnum#1>\zerocount
     \negativefalse \else
     \negativetrue  \fi}

\def\investigatemuskip#1%
  {\relax
   \edef\!!stringa{\the\scratchmuskip}%
   \edef\!!stringb{0mu}%
   \def\!!stringc##1##2\\{##1}%
   \expandafter\edef\expandafter\!!stringc\expandafter
     {\expandafter\!!stringc\!!stringa\\}%
   \edef\!!stringd{-}%
   \flexiblefalse
   \ifx\!!stringa\!!stringb
     \zerotrue
     \negativefalse
     \positivefalse
   \else
     \zerofalse
     \ifx\!!stringc\!!stringd
       \positivefalse
       \negativetrue
     \else
       \positivetrue
       \negativefalse
     \fi
   \fi}

%D Now the neccessary utility macros are defined, we can make a
%D start with the visualizing ones. The implementation of these
%D macros is a compromise between readability, efficiency of
%D coding and processing speed. Sometimes we do in steps what
%D could have been done in combination, sometimes we use a few
%D boxes more or less then actually needed, and more than once
%D one can find the same piece of rule drawing code twice.

%D \macros
%D   {ifcenteredvcue,normalvcue}
%D
%D Depending on the context, one can force visual vertical cues
%D being centered along \type{\hsize} or being put at the
%D current position. Although centering often looks better,
%D we've chosen the second alternative as default. The main
%D reason for doing so is that often when we don't set the
%D \type{\hsize} ourselves, \TEX\ takes the value of the
%D surrounding box. As a result the visual cues can migrate
%D outside the current context.
%D
%D This behavior is accomplished by a small but effective
%D auxiliary macro, which behavior can be influenced by the
%D boolean \type{\centeredvcue}. By saying
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \centeredvcuetrue
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D one turns centering on. As said, we turn it off.

\newif\ifcenteredvcue  \centeredvcuefalse

\def\normalvcue#1%
  {\normalhbox \ifcenteredvcue to \hsize \fi {\normalhss#1\normalhss}}

%D We could have used the more robust version
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \def\normalvcue%
%D   {\normalhbox \ifcenteredvcue to \hsize \fi
%D    \bgroup\bgroup\normalhss
%D    \aftergroup\normalhss\aftergroup\egroup
%D    \let\next=}
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D or the probably best one:
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \def\normalvcue%
%D   {\hbox \ifcenteredvcue to \hsize
%D      \bgroup\bgroup\normalhss
%D      \aftergroup\normalhss\aftergroup\egroup
%D    \else
%D      \bgroup
%D    \fi
%D    \let\next=}
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D Because we don't have to preserve \CATCODES\ and only use
%D small arguments, we stick to the first alternative.

%D \macros
%D   {testrulewidth}
%D
%D We build our visual cues out of rules. At the cost of a much
%D bigger \DVI\ file, this is to be prefered over using
%D characters (1)~because we cannot be sure of their
%D availability and (2)~because their dimensions are fixed.
%D
%D As with ruled boxes, we use a \DIMENSION\ to specify the
%D width of the ruled elements. This dimension defaults to:
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \testrulewidth=\boxrulewidth
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D Because we prefer whole numbers for specifying the
%D dimensions, we often use even multiples of
%D \type{\testrulewidth}.

%D \macros
%D   {visiblestretch}
%D
%D A second variable is introduced because of the stretch
%D components of \SKIPS. At the cost of some accuracy we can
%D make this stretch visible.
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \visiblestretchtrue
%D \stoptyping

\newdimen\testrulewidth  \testrulewidth=\boxrulewidth
\newif\ifvisiblestretch  \visiblestretchfalse

%D \macros
%D   {ruledhss,
%D    ruledhfil,ruledhfilneg,
%D    ruledhfill,ruledhfillneg}
%D
%D We start with the easiest part, the fills. The scheme we
%D follow is {\em visual filling -- going back -- normal
%D filling}. Visualizing is implemented using \type{\cleaders}.
%D Because the \BOX\ that follows this command is constructed
%D only once, the \type{\copy} is not really a prerequisite. We
%D prefer using a \type{\normalhbox} here instead of a
%D \type{\hbox}.

\def\setvisiblehfilbox#1\to#2#3#4%
  {\setbox#1\normalhbox
     {\visualvrule
        \!!width #2\testrulewidth
        \!!height#3\testrulewidth
        \!!depth #4\testrulewidth}%
   \smashbox#1}

\def\doruledhfiller#1#2#3#4%
  {#1#2%
   \bgroup
     \dontinterfere
     \dontcomplain
     \setvisiblehfilbox0\to{4}{#3}{#4}%
     \setvisiblehfilbox2\to422%
     \copy0\copy2
     \bgroup
       \setvisiblehfilbox0\to422%
       \cleaders
         \normalhbox to 12\testrulewidth
           {\normalhss\copy0\normalhss}%
         #1%
     \egroup
     \setbox0\normalhbox
       {\normalhskip-4\testrulewidth\copy0\copy2}%
     \smashbox0%
     \box0
   \egroup}

%D The horizontal fillers differ in their boundary
%D visualization. Watch the small dots. Fillers can be
%D combined within reasonable margins.
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \baselinerulefalse
%D \ruledhbox to \hsize
%D   {\strut\type{\hss}\ruledhss test}
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \baselinerulefalse
%D \ruledhbox to \hsize
%D   {\strut\type{\hfil}\ruledhfil test}
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \baselinerulefalse
%D \ruledhbox to \hsize
%D   {\strut\type{\hfill}\ruledhfill test}
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \baselinerulefalse
%D \ruledhbox to \hsize
%D   {\strut
%D    \type{\hfil}\type{\hfil}\ruledhfil\ruledhfil
%D    test%
%D    \ruledhfil\type{\hfil}}
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D The negative counterparts are visualizes, but seldom
%D become visible, apart from their boundaries.
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \baselinerulefalse
%D \ruledhbox to \hsize
%D   {\strut\type{\hfilneg}\ruledhfilneg test}
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \baselinerulefalse
%D \ruledhbox to \hsize
%D   {\strut\type{\hfillneg}\ruledhfillneg test}
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D Although leaders are used for visualizing, they are
%D visualized themselves correctly as the next example shows.
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \baselinerulefalse
%D \ruledhbox to \hsize
%D   {\strut\cleaders\normalhbox to 2em{\normalhss$\circ$\normalhss}\ruledhfill}
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D All five substitutions use the same auxiliary macro. Watch
%D the positive first -- negative next approach.

\unexpanded\def\ruledhss
  {\doruledhfiller\normalhss\normalhfilneg{0}{0}}

\unexpanded\def\ruledhfil
  {\doruledhfiller\normalhfil\normalhfilneg{10}{-6}}

\unexpanded\def\ruledhfill
  {\doruledhfiller\normalhfill\normalhfillneg{18}{-14}}

\unexpanded\def\ruledhfilneg
  {\doruledhfiller\normalhfilneg\normalhfil{-6}{10}}

\unexpanded\def\ruledhfillneg
  {\doruledhfiller\normalhfillneg\normalhfill{-14}{18}}

%D \macros
%D   {ruledvss,
%D    ruledvfil,ruledvfilneg,
%D    ruledvfill,ruledvfillneg}
%D
%D The vertical mode commands adopt the same visualization
%D scheme, but are implemented in a slightly different way.

\def\setvisiblevfilbox#1\to#2#3#4%
  {\setbox#1\normalhbox
     {\visualvrule
        \!!width #2\testrulewidth
        \!!height#3\testrulewidth
        \!!depth #4\testrulewidth}%
   \smashbox#1}%

\def\doruledvfiller#1#2#3%
  {#1#2%
   \bgroup
     \dontinterfere
     \dontcomplain
     \normaloffinterlineskip
     \setvisiblevfilbox0\to422%
     \setbox2\normalvcue
       {\normalhskip -#3\testrulewidth\copy0}%
     \smashbox2%
     \copy2
     \bgroup
       \setbox2\normalvcue
         {\normalhskip -2\testrulewidth\copy0}%
       \smashbox2%
       \copy2
       \cleaders
         \normalvbox to 12\testrulewidth
           {\normalvss\copy2\normalvss}%
         #1%
       \setbox2\normalvbox
         {\normalvskip-2\testrulewidth\copy2}%
       \smashbox2%
       \box2
     \egroup
     \box2
   \egroup}

%D Because they act the same as their horizontal counterparts
%D we only show a few examples.
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \hbox to \hsize
%D   {\dontinterfere
%D    \baselinerulefalse
%D    \centeredvcuetrue
%D    \ruledvbox to 10ex
%D      {\hsize.18\hsize
%D       \type{\vss}\ruledvss last line}\normalhss
%D    \ruledvbox to 10ex
%D      {\hsize.18\hsize
%D       \type{\vfil}\ruledvfil last line}\normalhss
%D    \ruledvbox to 10ex
%D      {\hsize.18\hsize
%D       \type{\vfill}\ruledvfill last line}\normalhss
%D    \ruledvbox to 10ex
%D      {\hsize.18\hsize
%D       \type{\vfilneg}\ruledvfilneg last line}\normalhss
%D    \ruledvbox to 10ex
%D      {\hsize.18\hsize
%D       \type{\vfillneg}\ruledvfillneg last line}}
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D Keep in mind that \type{\vfillneg} is not part of \PLAIN\
%D \TEX, but are mimmicked by a macro.

\unexpanded\def\ruledvss     {\doruledvfiller\normalvss     \normalvfilneg   {2}}
\unexpanded\def\ruledvfil    {\doruledvfiller\normalvfil    \normalvfilneg  {-4}}
\unexpanded\def\ruledvfill   {\doruledvfiller\normalvfill   \normalvfillneg{-12}}
\unexpanded\def\ruledvfilneg {\doruledvfiller\normalvfilneg \normalvfil      {8}}
\unexpanded\def\ruledvfillneg{\doruledvfiller\normalvfillneg\normalvfill    {16}}

%D \macros
%D   {ruledhskip}
%D
%D Skips differ from kerns in two important aspects:
%D
%D \startitemize[packed]
%D \item  line and pagebreaks are allowed at a skip
%D \item  skips can have a positive and/or negative
%D       stretchcomponent
%D \stopitemize
%D
%D Stated a bit different: kerns are fixed skips at which no
%D line or pagebreak can occur. Because skips have a more open
%D character, they are visualized in a open way.
%D
%D \startbuffer
%D one
%D \hskip +30pt plus 5pt
%D two
%D \hskip +30pt
%D \hskip -10pt plus 5pt
%D three
%D \hskip   0pt
%D four
%D \hskip +30pt
%D five
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExample
%D
%D When skips have a stretch component, this is visualized by
%D means of a dashed line. Positive skips are on top of the
%D baseline, negative ones are below it. This way we can show
%D the combined results. An alternative visualization of
%D stretch could be drawing the mid line over a length of the
%D stretch, in positive or negative direction.

\def\doruledhskip
  {\relax
   \dontinterfere
   \dontcomplain
   \investigateskip\scratchskip
   \ifzero
     \setbox0\normalhbox
       {\normalhskip-\testrulewidth
        \visualvrule
          \!!width4\testrulewidth
          \!!height16\testrulewidth
          \!!depth16\testrulewidth}%
   \else
     \setbox0\normalhbox to \ifnegative-\fi\scratchskip
       {\visualvrule
          \!!width2\testrulewidth
          \ifnegative\!!depth\else\!!height\fi16\testrulewidth
        \cleaders
          \visualhrule
            \ifnegative
              \!!depth2\testrulewidth
              \!!height\zeropoint
            \else
              \!!height2\testrulewidth
              \!!depth\zeropoint
            \fi
          \normalhfill
        \ifflexible
          \normalhskip\ifnegative\else-\fi\scratchskip
          \normalhskip2\testrulewidth
          \cleaders
            \normalhbox
              {\normalhskip 2\testrulewidth
               \visualvrule
                 \!!width2\testrulewidth
                 \!!height\ifnegative-7\else9\fi\testrulewidth
                 \!!depth\ifnegative9\else-7\fi\testrulewidth
               \normalhskip 2\testrulewidth}%
            \normalhfill
        \fi
        \visualvrule
          \!!width2\testrulewidth
          \ifnegative\!!depth\else\!!height\fi16\testrulewidth}%
     \setbox0\normalhbox
       {\ifnegative\else\normalhskip-\scratchskip\fi
        \box0}%
   \fi
   \smashbox0%
   \ifvisiblestretch \else
     \flexiblefalse
   \fi
   \ifflexible
     % breaks ok but small displacements can occur
     \skip2\scratchskip
     \advance\skip2 -1\scratchskip
     \divide\skip2 2
     \advance\scratchskip -\skip2
     \normalhskip\scratchskip
     \normalpenalty\!!tenthousand
     \box0
     \normalhskip\skip2
   \else
     \normalhskip\scratchskip
     \box0
   \fi
   \egroup}

\unexpanded\def\ruledhskip
  {\bgroup
   \afterassignment\doruledhskip
   \scratchskip=}

%D The visual skip is located at a feasible point. Normally
%D this does not interfere with the normaltypesetting process.
%D The next examples show (1)~the default behavior, (2)~the
%D (not entirely correct) distributed stretch and (3)~the way
%D the text is typeset without cues.
%D
%D \startbuffer
%D \dorecurse
%D   {15}
%D   {test\hskip1em plus .5em minus .5em
%D    test\hskip2em
%D    test}
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \showmakeup
%D \getbuffer
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \showmakeup
%D \visiblestretchtrue
%D \getbuffer
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \getbuffer
%D \stoplinecorrection

%D \macros
%D   {ruledvskip}
%D
%D We are less fortunate when implementing the vertical skips.
%D This is a direct result of interference between the boxes that
%D visualize the skip and skip removal at a pagebreak. Normally
%D skips disappear at the top of a page, but not of course when
%D visualized in a \type{\vbox}. A quite perfect simulation
%D could have been built if we would have had available two
%D more primitives: \type{\hnop} and \type{\vnop}. These new
%D primitives could stand for boxes that are visible but are
%D not taken into account in any way. They are there for us,
%D but not for \TEX.
%D
%D \startbuffer
%D first line
%D \vskip +30pt plus 5pt
%D second line
%D \vskip +30pt
%D \vskip -10pt plus 5pt
%D third line
%D \par
%D fourth line
%D \vskip +30pt
%D fifth line
%D \vskip   0pt
%D sixth line
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExample
%D
%D We have to postpone \type{\prevdepth}. Although this
%D precaution probably is not completely waterproof, it works
%D quite well.

\def\dodoruledvskip
  {\nextdepth\prevdepth
   \dontinterfere
   \dontcomplain
   \normaloffinterlineskip
   \investigateskip\scratchskip
   \ifzero
     \setbox0\normalvcue
       {\visualvrule
          \!!width32\testrulewidth
          \!!height2\testrulewidth
          \!!depth2\testrulewidth}%
   \else
     \setbox0\normalvbox to \ifnegative-\fi\scratchskip
       {\visualhrule
          \!!width16\testrulewidth
          \!!height2\testrulewidth
        \ifflexible
          \cleaders
            \normalhbox to 16\testrulewidth
              {\normalhss
               \normalvbox
                 {\normalvskip 2\testrulewidth
                  \visualhrule
                  \!!width2\testrulewidth
                  \!!height2\testrulewidth
                  \normalvskip 2\testrulewidth}%
               \normalhss}%
            \normalvfill
        \else
          \normalvfill
        \fi
        \visualhrule
          \!!width16\testrulewidth
          \!!height2\testrulewidth}%
     \setbox2\normalvbox to \ht0
       {\visualhrule
          \!!width2\testrulewidth
          \!!height\ht0}%
     \ifnegative
       \ht0\zeropoint
       \setbox0\normalhbox
         {\normalhskip2\testrulewidth % will be improved
          \normalhskip-\wd0\box0}%
     \fi
     \smashbox0%
     \smashbox2%
     \setbox0\normalvcue
       {\box2\box0}%
     \setbox0\normalvbox
       {\ifnegative\normalvskip\scratchskip\fi\box0}%
     \smashbox0%
   \fi
   \ifvisiblestretch
     \ifflexible
       \skip2\scratchskip
       \advance\skip2 -1\scratchskip
       \divide\skip2 2
       \advance\scratchskip -\skip2
       \normalvskip\skip2
     \fi
   \fi
   \normalpenalty\!!tenthousand
   \box0
   \prevdepth\nextdepth % not \dp0=\nextdepth
   \normalvskip\scratchskip}

%D We try to avoid interfering at the top of a page. Of course
%D we only do so when we are in the main vertical list.

\def\doruledvskip
  {\endgraf % \par
   \ifdim\pagegoal=\maxdimen
     \ifinner
       \dodoruledvskip
     \fi
   \else
     \dodoruledvskip
   \fi
   \egroup}

\unexpanded\def\ruledvskip
  {\bgroup
   \afterassignment\doruledvskip
   \scratchskip=}

%D \macros
%D   {ruledkern}
%D
%D The macros that implement the kerns are a bit more
%D complicated than needed, because they also serve the
%D visualization of glue, our \PLAIN\ defined kerns with
%D stretch or shrink. We've implemented both horizontal and
%D vertical kerns as ruled boxes.
%D
%D \startbuffer
%D one
%D \kern +30pt
%D two
%D \kern +30pt
%D \kern -10pt
%D three
%D \kern   0pt
%D four
%D \kern +30pt
%D five
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExample
%D
%D Positive and negative kerns are placed on top or below the
%D baseline, so we are able to track their added result. We
%D didn't mention spacings of 0~pt yet. Zero values are
%D visualized a bit different, because we want to see them
%D anyhow.

\def\doruledhkern
  {\dontinterfere
   \dontcomplain
   \baselinerulefalse
   \investigateskip\scratchskip
   \boxrulewidth2\testrulewidth
   \ifzero
     \setbox0\ruledhbox to 8\testrulewidth
       {\visualvrule
          \!!width\zeropoint
          \!!height16\testrulewidth
          \!!depth16\testrulewidth}%
     \setbox0\normalhbox
       {\normalhskip-4\testrulewidth\box0}%
   \else
     \setbox0\ruledhbox to \ifnegative-\fi\scratchskip
       {\visualvrule
          \!!width\zeropoint
          \ifnegative\!!depth\else\!!height\fi16\testrulewidth
        \ifflexible
          \normalhskip2\testrulewidth
          \cleaders
            \normalhbox
              {\normalhskip 2\testrulewidth
               \visualvrule
                 \!!width2\testrulewidth
                 \!!height\ifnegative-7\else9\fi\testrulewidth
                 \!!depth\ifnegative9\else-7\fi\testrulewidth
               \normalhskip 2\testrulewidth}%
            \normalhfill
        \else
          \normalhfill
        \fi}%
     \testrulewidth2\testrulewidth
     \setbox0\ruledhbox{\box0}%  \make...
   \fi
   \smashbox0%
   \normalpenalty\!!tenthousand
   \normalhbox to \zeropoint
     {\ifnegative\normalhskip1\scratchskip\fi
      \box0}%
   \afterwards\scratchskip
   \egroup}

\unexpanded\def\ruledhkern#1%
  {\bgroup
   \let\afterwards#1%
   \afterassignment\doruledhkern
   \scratchskip=}

%D After having seen the horizontal ones, the vertical kerns
%D will not surprise us. In this example we use \type{\par} to
%D switch to vertical mode.
%D
%D \startbuffer
%D first line
%D \par \kern +30pt
%D second line
%D \par \kern +30pt
%D \par \kern -10pt
%D third line
%D \par
%D fourth line
%D \par \kern +30pt
%D fifth line
%D \par \kern   0pt
%D sixth line
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExample
%D
%D Like before, we have to postpone \type{\prevdepth}. If we
%D leave out this trick, we got ourselves some wrong spacing.

\def\dodoruledvkern
  {\nextdepth\prevdepth
   \dontinterfere
   \dontcomplain
   \baselinerulefalse
   \normaloffinterlineskip
   \investigateskip\scratchskip
   \boxrulewidth2\testrulewidth
   \ifzero
     \setbox0\ruledhbox to 32\testrulewidth
       {\visualvrule
          \!!width\zeropoint
          \!!height4\testrulewidth
          \!!depth4\testrulewidth}%
   \else
     \setbox0\ruledvbox to \ifnegative-\fi\scratchskip
       {\hsize16\testrulewidth
        \ifflexible
          \cleaders
            \normalhbox to 16\testrulewidth
              {\normalhss
               \normalvbox
                 {\normalvskip 2\testrulewidth
                  \visualhrule
                    \!!width2\testrulewidth
                    \!!height2\testrulewidth
                  \normalvskip 2\testrulewidth}%
               \normalhss}%
            \normalvfill
        \else
          \visualvrule
            \!!width\zeropoint
            \!!height\ifnegative-\fi\scratchskip
          \normalhfill
        \fi}
   \fi
   \testrulewidth2\testrulewidth
   \setbox0\ruledvbox{\box0}%  \make...
   \smashbox0%
   \setbox0\normalvbox
     {\ifnegative\normalvskip\scratchskip\fi
      \normalvcue
       {\ifnegative\normalhskip-16\testrulewidth\fi\box0}}%
   \smashbox0%
   \normalpenalty\!!tenthousand
   \box0
   \prevdepth\nextdepth} % not \dp0=\nextdepth

\def\doruledvkern
  {\ifdim\pagegoal=\maxdimen
     \ifinner
       \dodoruledvkern
     \fi
   \else
     \dodoruledvkern
   \fi
   \afterwards\scratchskip
   \egroup}

\unexpanded\def\ruledvkern#1%
  {\bgroup
   \let\afterwards#1\relax
   \afterassignment\doruledvkern
   \scratchskip=}

\unexpanded\def\ruledkern
  {\ifvmode
     \expandafter\ruledvkern
   \else
     \expandafter\ruledhkern
   \fi
   \normalkern}

%D A a bit more \TEX nice solution is:
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \unexpanded\def\ruledkern%
%D   {\csname ruled\ifvmode v\else h\fi kern\endcsname\normalkern}
%D \stoptyping

%D \macros
%D   {ruledhglue,ruledvglue}
%D
%D The non-primitive glue commands are treated as kerns with
%D stretch. This stretch is presented as a dashed line. I
%D have to admit that until now, I've never used these glue
%D commands.
%D
%D \startbuffer
%D one
%D \hglue +30pt plus 5pt
%D two
%D \hglue +30pt
%D \hglue -10pt plus 5pt
%D three
%D \hglue   0pt
%D four
%D \hglue +30pt
%D five
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExample

\def\doruledhglue
  {\leavevmode
   \scratchcounter\spacefactor
   \visualvrule\!!width\zeropoint
   \normalpenalty\!!tenthousand
   \ruledhkern\normalhskip\scratchskip
   \spacefactor\scratchcounter
   \egroup}

\unexpanded\def\ruledhglue
  {\bgroup
   \afterassignment\doruledhglue\scratchskip=}

%D \startbuffer
%D first line
%D \vglue +30pt plus 5pt
%D second line
%D \vglue +30pt
%D \vglue -10pt plus 5pt
%D third line
%D \par
%D fourth line
%D \vglue +30pt
%D fifth line
%D \vglue   0pt
%D sixth line
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExample

\def\doruledvglue
  {\endgraf % \par
   \nextdepth\prevdepth
   \visualhrule\!!height\zeropoint
   \normalpenalty\!!tenthousand
   \ruledvkern\normalvskip\scratchskip
   \prevdepth\nextdepth
   \egroup}

\unexpanded\def\ruledvglue
  {\bgroup
   \afterassignment\doruledvglue\scratchskip=}

%D \macros
%D   {ruledmkern,ruledmskip}
%D
%D Mathematical kerns and skips are specified in mu. This
%D font related unit is incompatible with those of \DIMENSIONS\
%D and \SKIPS. Because in math mode spacing is often a very
%D subtle matter, we've used a very simple, not overloaded way
%D to show them.

\def\dodoruledmkern#1%
  {\dontinterfere
   \dontcomplain
   \setbox0\normalhbox
     {$\normalmkern\ifnegative-\fi\scratchmuskip$}%
   \setbox0\normalhbox to \wd0
     {\visualvrule
        \!!height16\testrulewidth
        \!!depth16\testrulewidth
        \!!width\testrulewidth
      \leaders
        \visualhrule
          \!!height\ifpositive16\else-14\fi\testrulewidth
          \!!depth\ifpositive-14\else16\fi\testrulewidth
        \normalhfill
      \ifflexible
        \normalhskip-\wd0
        \leaders
          \visualhrule
            \!!height\testrulewidth
            \!!depth\testrulewidth
          \normalhfill
      \fi
      \visualvrule
        \!!height16\testrulewidth
        \!!depth16\testrulewidth
        \!!width\testrulewidth}%
   \smashbox0%
   \ifnegative
      #1\scratchmuskip
     \box0
   \else
     \box0
      #1\scratchmuskip
   \fi
   \egroup}

%D \startbuffer
%D $a \mkern3mu = \mkern3mu
%D  b \quad
%D  \mkern-2mu + \mkern-2mu
%D  \quad c$
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExample

\def\doruledmkern
  {\investigatemuskip\scratchmuskip
   \flexiblefalse
   \dodoruledmkern\normalmkern}

\unexpanded\def\ruledmkern
  {\bgroup
   \afterassignment\doruledmkern\scratchmuskip=}

%D \startbuffer
%D $a \mskip3mu = \mskip3mu
%D  b \quad
%D  \mskip-2mu + \mskip-2mu
%D  \quad c$
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExample

\def\doruledmskip
  {\investigatemuskip\scratchmuskip
   \flexibletrue
   \dodoruledmkern\normalmskip}

\unexpanded\def\ruledmskip
  {\bgroup
   \afterassignment\doruledmskip\scratchmuskip=}

%D \macros
%D   {penalty}
%D
%D After presenting fills, skip, kerns and glue we've come to
%D see penalties. In the first implementation --- most of the
%D time needed to develop this set of macros went into testing
%D different types of visualization --- penalties were mere
%D small blocks with one black half, depending on the sign.
%D This most recent version also gives an indication of the
%D amount of penalty. Penalties can go from less than $-10000$
%D to over $+10000$, and their behavior is somewhat
%D non-lineair, with some values having special meanings. We
%D therefore decided not to use its value for a lineair
%D indicator.
%D
%D \startbuffer
%D one
%D \penalty +100
%D two
%D \penalty +100
%D \penalty -100
%D three
%D \penalty    0
%D four
%D \penalty +100
%D five
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExample
%D
%D The small sticks at the side of the penalty indicate it
%D size. The next example shows the positive and negative
%D penalties of 0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 and 10000.
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \hbox
%D   {test \ruledhpenalty0
%D    test \ruledhpenalty1
%D    test \ruledhpenalty10
%D    test \ruledhpenalty100
%D    test \ruledhpenalty1000
%D    test \ruledhpenalty10000
%D    test}
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D \blank
%D
%D \startlinecorrection
%D \hbox
%D   {test \ruledhpenalty0
%D    test \ruledhpenalty-1
%D    test \ruledhpenalty-10
%D    test \ruledhpenalty-100
%D    test \ruledhpenalty-1000
%D    test \ruledhpenalty-10000
%D    test}
%D \stoplinecorrection
%D
%D \blank
%D
%D This way stacked penalties of different severance can be
%D shown in combination.
%D
%D test \ruledhpenalty10 \ruledhpenalty100
%D test
%D test \ruledhpenalty1000 \ruledhpenalty-1000
%D test

\def\setruledpenaltybox#1#2#3#4#5#6%
  {\setbox#1\normalhbox
     {\ifnum#2=0 \else
        \edef\sign
          {\ifnum#2>0 +\else-\fi}%
        \dimen0=\ifnum\sign#2>9999
                  28\else
                \ifnum\sign#2>999
                  22\else
                \ifnum\sign#2>99
                  16\else
                \ifnum\sign#2>9
                  10\else
                  4
                \fi\fi\fi\fi \testrulewidth
        \ifnum#2<0
          \normalhskip-\dimen0
          \normalhskip-2\testrulewidth
          \visualvrule
            \!!width2\testrulewidth
            \!!height#3\testrulewidth
            \!!depth#4\testrulewidth
        \fi
        \visualvrule
          \!!width\dimen0
          \!!height#5\testrulewidth
          \!!depth#6\testrulewidth
        \ifnum#2>0
          \visualvrule
            \!!width2\testrulewidth
            \!!height#3\testrulewidth
            \!!depth#4\testrulewidth
         \fi
      \fi}%
   \smashbox#1}

\def\doruledhpenalty
  {\dontinterfere
   \dontcomplain
   \investigatecount\scratchcounter
   \testrulewidth2\testrulewidth
   \boxrulewidth\testrulewidth
   \setbox0\ruledhbox to 8\testrulewidth
     {\ifnegative\else\normalhss\fi
      \visualvrule
        \!!depth8\testrulewidth
        \!!width\ifzero0\else4\fi\testrulewidth
      \ifpositive\else\normalhss\fi}%
   \setruledpenaltybox{2}{\scratchcounter}{0}{8}{-3.5}{4.5}%
   \normalpenalty\!!tenthousand
   \setbox0\normalhbox
     {\normalhskip-4\testrulewidth
      \ifnegative
        \box2\box0
      \else
        \box0\box2
      \fi}%
   \smashbox0%
   \box0
   \normalpenalty\scratchcounter
   \egroup}

\unexpanded\def\ruledhpenalty
  {\bgroup
   \afterassignment\doruledhpenalty
   \scratchcounter=}

%D The size of a vertical penalty is also shown on the
%D horizontal axis. This way there is less interference with
%D the often preceding or following skips and kerns.
%D
%D \startbuffer
%D first line
%D \par \penalty +100
%D second line
%D \par \penalty +100
%D \par \penalty -100
%D third line
%D \par \penalty    0
%D fourth line
%D \par \penalty +100
%D fifth line
%D \stopbuffer
%D
%D \ShowBufferedExample

\def\doruledvpenalty
  {\ifdim\pagegoal=\maxdimen
   \else
     \nextdepth\prevdepth
     \dontinterfere
     \dontcomplain
     \investigatecount\scratchcounter
     \testrulewidth2\testrulewidth
     \boxrulewidth\testrulewidth
     \setbox0\ruledhbox
       {\visualvrule
          \!!height4\testrulewidth
          \!!depth4\testrulewidth
          \!!width\zeropoint
        \visualvrule
          \!!height\ifnegative.5\else4\fi\testrulewidth
          \!!depth\ifpositive.5\else4\fi\testrulewidth
          \!!width8\testrulewidth}%
     \setruledpenaltybox{2}{\scratchcounter}{4}{4}{.5}{.5}%
     \setbox0\normalhbox
       {\normalhskip-4\testrulewidth
        \ifnegative
          \box2\box0
        \else
          \box0\box2
        \fi
        \normalhss}%
     \smashbox0%
     \normalpenalty\!!tenthousand
     \nointerlineskip
     \dp0\nextdepth  % not \prevdepth=\nextdepth
     \normalvbox
       {\normalvcue{\box0}}%
   \fi
   \normalpenalty\scratchcounter
   \egroup}

\unexpanded\def\ruledvpenalty
  {\bgroup
   \afterassignment\doruledvpenalty
   \scratchcounter=}

\unexpanded\def\ruledpenalty
  {\ifvmode
     \expandafter\ruledvpenalty
   \else
     \expandafter\ruledhpenalty
   \fi}

%D At the cost of some more tokens, a bit more clever
%D implementation would be:
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \unexpanded\def\ruledpenalty%
%D   {\csname ruled\ifvmode v\else h\fi penalty\endcsname}
%D \stoptyping

%D \macros
%D   {showfils,dontshowfils,
%D    showboxes,dontshowboxes,
%D    showskips,dontshowskips,
%D    showpenalties,dontshowpenalties}
%D
%D For those who want to manipulate the visual cues in detail,
%D we have grouped them.

\newif\ifshowingcomposition % see later why we need this

\def\showfils
  {\showingcompositiontrue
   \let\hss      \ruledhss
   \let\hfil     \ruledhfil
   \let\hfill    \ruledhfill
   \let\hfilneg  \ruledhfilneg
   \let\hfillneg \ruledhfillneg
   \let\vss      \ruledvss
   \let\vfil     \ruledvfil
   \let\vfill    \ruledvfill
   \let\vfilneg  \ruledvfilneg
   \let\vfillneg \ruledvfillneg}

\def\dontshowfils
  {\let\hss      \normalhss
   \let\hfil     \normalhfil
   \let\hfill    \normalhfill
   \let\hfilneg  \normalhfilneg
   \let\hfillneg \normalhfillneg
   \let\vss      \normalvss
   \let\vfil     \normalvfil
   \let\vfill    \normalvfill
   \let\vfilneg  \normalvfilneg
   \let\vfillneg \normalvfillneg}

\def\showboxes
  {\showingcompositiontrue
   \baselineruletrue
   \let\hbox     \ruledhbox
   \let\vbox     \ruledvbox
   \let\vtop     \ruledvtop
   \let\vcenter  \ruledvcenter}

\def\dontshowboxes
  {\let\hbox     \normalhbox
   \let\vbox     \normalvbox
   \let\vtop     \normalvtop
   \let\vcenter  \normalvcenter}

\def\showskips
  {\showingcompositiontrue
   \let\hskip    \ruledhskip
   \let\vskip    \ruledvskip
   \let\kern     \ruledkern
   \let\mskip    \ruledmskip
   \let\mkern    \ruledmkern
   \let\hglue    \ruledhglue
   \let\vglue    \ruledvglue}

\def\dontshowskips
  {\let\hskip    \normalhskip
   \let\vskip    \normalvskip
   \let\kern     \normalkern
   \let\mskip    \normalmskip
   \let\mkern    \normalmkern
   \let\hglue    \normalhglue
   \let\vglue    \normalvglue}

\def\showpenalties
  {\showingcompositiontrue
   \let\penalty  \ruledpenalty}

\def\dontshowpenalties
  {\let\penalty  \normalpenalty}

%D \macros
%D   {showcomposition,dontshowcomposition,
%D    showingcomposition}
%D
%D All these nice options come together in three macros. One
%D for turning the options on, one for turning them off, and a
%D boolean for enabling the mechanism outside the scope of the
%D user. The first two macros only do their job when we are
%D actually showing the composition.
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \showingcompositiontrue
%D \showcomposition
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D Because the output routine can do tricky things, like
%D multiple column typesetting and manipulation of the
%D pagebody, shifting things around and so on, the macro
%D \type{\dontshowcomposition} best can be called when we enter
%D this routine. Too much visual cues just don't make sense. In
%D \CONTEXT\ this has been taken care of.

\newif\ifshowingcomposition

\def\showcomposition
  {\ifshowingcomposition
     \showfils
     \showboxes
     \showskips
     \showpenalties
   \fi}

\def\dontshowcomposition
  {\ifshowingcomposition
     \dontshowfils
     \dontshowboxes
     \dontshowskips
     \dontshowpenalties
   \fi}

%D \macros
%D   {showmakeup,
%D    defaulttestrulewidth}
%D
%D Just to make things even more easy, we have defined:
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \showmakeup
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D For the sake of those who don't (yet) use \CONTEXT\ we
%D preset \type{\defaulttestrulewidth} to the already set
%D value. Otherwise we default to a bodyfontsize related value.
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \def\defaulttestrulewidth{.2pt}
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D Beware, it's a macro not a \DIMENSION.

\ifx\bodyfontsize\undefined
  \edef\defaulttestrulewidth{\the\testrulewidth}
\else
  \def\defaulttestrulewidth{.02\bodyfontsize}
\fi

\def\showmakeup
  {\testrulewidth\defaulttestrulewidth
   \showingcompositiontrue
   \showcomposition}

\protect

%D \ifCONTEXT \let\next=\relax \else \let\next=\endinput
%D The documented source you have been reading was processed
%D using some surrogate makeup. When this file is processed
%D in \CONTEXT, a few more examples show up here, like a local
%D table of contents and a local register.
%D \fi \next

%D Lets end with some more advanced examples.
%D Definitions and enumerations come in many flavors. The
%D next one for instance is defined as:
%D
%D \starttyping
%D \definedescription[test][place=left,hang=3,width=6em]
%D \stoptyping
%D
%D When applied to some text, this would look like:
%D
%D \bgroup
%D \showmakeup
%D \definedescription[test][location=left,hang=3,width=6em]
%D
%D \test{visual\\debugger} I would be very pleased if \TEX\
%D had two more primitives: \type{\vnop} and \type{\hnop}. Both
%D should act and show up as normal boxes, but stay invisible
%D for \TEX\ when it's doing calculations. The \type{\vnop}
%D for instance should not interact with the internal mechanism
%D responsible for the disappearing skips, kerns and penalties
%D at a pagebreak. As long as we don't have these two boxtypes,
%D visual debugging will never be perfect.
%D
%D \egroup
%D
%D The index to this section looks like:
%D
%D {\setupreferencing[prefixprefix=dummy]\showmakeup\placeindex[criterium=local]}
%D
%D Although not impressive examples or typesetting, both
%D show us how and where things happen. When somehow the last
%D lines in this two column index don't allign, then this is
%D due to some still unknown interference.

\endinput